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地震安全性评价
作者:国家指定房屋检测机构 来源: 发布时间:2017-12-18 15:16:30

地震安(an)全性(xing)评价(jia)


    一、地(di)震安全性评价(jia)的概念

    地震安全性评价是指在对具体建设工程场址及其周围地区的地震地质条件、地球物理场环境、地震活动规律、现代地形变及应力场等方面深入研究的基础上,采用先进的地震危险性概率分析方法,按照工程所需要采用的风险水平,科学地给出相应的工程规划或设计所需要的一定概率水准下的地震动参数(加速度、设计反应谱,地震动时程等)和相应的资料。

    二、地震安全性评(ping)价(jia)简介

    地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)安(an)全性(xing)(xing)评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)是根据对建设(she)(she)工(gong)程(cheng)场(chang)址(zhi)和(he)场(chang)址(zhi)周(zhou)围的(de)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)与地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)质(zhi)(zhi)环境(jing)(jing)的(de)调(diao)查,场(chang)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)工(gong)程(cheng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)质(zhi)(zhi)条件勘测(ce),通过(guo)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)质(zhi)(zhi)、地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)球物理、地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)工(gong)程(cheng)等(deng)多(duo)学(xue)科资料(liao)的(de)综合评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)和(he)分(fen)析计(ji)算,按照工(gong)程(cheng)类(lei)型、性(xing)(xing)质(zhi)(zhi)、重要(yao)性(xing)(xing),科学(xue)合理地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)给出与工(gong)程(cheng)抗震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)设(she)(she)防要(yao)求相应的(de)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)动(dong)(dong)参数(shu),以(yi)及场(chang)址(zhi)的(de)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)质(zhi)(zhi)灾(zai)害预测(ce)结(jie)果。地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)安(an)全性(xing)(xing)评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)工(gong)作的(de)主(zhu)要(yao)内容包括:工(gong)程(cheng)场(chang)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)和(he)场(chang)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)周(zhou)围区(qu)域的(de)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)活(huo)(huo)动(dong)(dong)环境(jing)(jing)评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)、地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)质(zhi)(zhi)环境(jing)(jing)评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)、断裂活(huo)(huo)动(dong)(dong)性(xing)(xing)鉴定、地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)危险性(xing)(xing)分(fen)析、设(she)(she)计(ji)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)动(dong)(dong)参数(shu)确(que)定、地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)质(zhi)(zhi)灾(zai)害评(ping)(ping)(ping)价(jia)等(deng)。

    三、管理(li)条例

    国(guo)务院令第323号,2001年11月15日公布,自2002年1月1日起施行,对中华人民共和国防震减灾法中的上述规定进行了细化,对需要进行地震安全性评价的建设工程的范围进行了规定。该条例第十一条规定:

    下列建设工程必须进行地(di)震(zhen)安(an)全性评价:

    (一)国家重大建设工程(cheng);

    (二)受地震破坏后可(ke)能引发水灾(zai)、火灾(zai)、爆炸(zha)、剧毒(du)或者强腐(fu)蚀性物(wu)质(zhi)大量泄漏(lou)或者其他严重次生灾(zai)害的建设工(gong)程,包括水库大坝、堤防(fang)和贮油、贮气、贮存易(yi)燃易(yi)爆、剧毒(du)或者强腐(fu)蚀性物(wu)质(zhi)的设施以及其他可(ke)能发生严重次生灾(zai)害的建设工(gong)程;

    (三)受地震破(po)坏后可(ke)能(neng)引发(fa)放(fang)射性(xing)污染的(de)核(he)电站(zhan)和核(he)设(she)施建设(she)工程;

    (四)省、自治区(qu)、直辖市(shi)认(ren)为对本(ben)行政区(qu)域有重大价值或者有重大影(ying)响(xiang)的其他(ta)建设(she)工程。

    国家标准GB18306-2001《中国地震动参数区划图》第4.3条规定:

    (1)下列(lie)工程或(huo)地区的(de)抗震设(she)防要求不应直接采用本标准,需做专门研究,即地震安(an)全性评价:

    a) 抗震设防要求(qiu)高(gao)于本地震动参数(shu)区划图(tu)抗震设防要求(qiu)的(de)(de)重大工(gong)程、可能发生严重次(ci)生灾害(hai)的(de)(de)工(gong)程、核电(dian)站和其他有特殊要求(qiu)的(de)(de)核设施建设工(gong)程;

    b)位于地震(zhen)动参数(shu)区划图(tu)分(fen)界线(xian)附近的(de)新建(jian)、扩建(jian)、改建(jian)的(de)工程(cheng);

    c)某些地震(zhen)研究程度(du)和资料详细程度(du)较(jiao)差的边远(yuan)地区;

    d)位(wei)于复杂工程地质条件区(qu)域的(de)大(da)城市、大(da)型厂矿(kuang)企业、长距离生命线工程以及新(xin)建(jian)开(kai)发区(qu)等。

    以(yi)(yi)上各条款规定(ding)的建设工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、以(yi)(yi)及国家有关(guan)行业主管部门和各省级人民(min)政府规定(ding)的应(ying)开(kai)展工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)场(chang)地(di)(di)地(di)(di)震(zhen)安(an)全(quan)性(xing)评(ping)(ping)价(jia)的各类建设工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng),都(dou)应(ying)按本标准(zhun)的要(yao)求,认真开(kai)展工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)场(chang)地(di)(di)地(di)(di)震(zhen)安(an)全(quan)性(xing)评(ping)(ping)价(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作。对(dui)规定(ding)以(yi)(yi)外的因建设需要(yao)等原因要(yao)进行地(di)(di)震(zhen)安(an)全(quan)性(xing)评(ping)(ping)价(jia)的建设工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng),其工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)场(chang)地(di)(di)地(di)(di)震(zhen)安(an)全(quan)性(xing)评(ping)(ping)价(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作也应(ying)符合本标准(zhun)的相关(guan)技(ji)术要(yao)求。

    四(si)、地震安全性评价分级

    地震安全性评价工作划分为以下四级:

    a) Ⅰ级工作包(bao)括地(di)震(zhen)危险性的概率分析和(he)确(que)定(ding)性分析、能动断(duan)层鉴定(ding)、场(chang)地(di)地(di)震(zhen)动参(can)数确(que)定(ding)和(he)地(di)震(zhen)地(di)质灾害评(ping)价。适(shi)用于核电(dian)厂等(deng)重(zhong)大建设(she)工程项目中的主要工程;

    b) Ⅱ级工作(zuo)包括地(di)震(zhen)(zhen)危险性概率分析、场地(di)地(di)震(zhen)(zhen)动参数确定(ding)和地(di)震(zhen)(zhen)地(di)质(zhi)灾害评价。适用于除Ⅰ级以外的重大(da)建(jian)设工程项目(mu)中的主要工程;

    c) Ⅲ级(ji)工作包括地震危(wei)险性(xing)概(gai)率分析、区域性(xing)地震区划(hua)和(he)地震小区划(hua)。适用(yong)于城镇、大型厂矿企(qi)业、经(jing)济建(jian)设(she)开发区、重要生命线工程等;

    d) Ⅳ级(ji)工作包括地(di)震危(wei)险性概率分(fen)析(xi)、地(di)震动峰值加速(su)度复核。

地震安全性评价.jpg

 


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